4th Generation LONG TERM EVOLUTION CELLULAR Transmission
LTE SAE HSPA
Among all the others, Verizon Wireless is picking LTE Long-Term Evolution as the 4G technology for wireless broadband which started trials in 2008. THIS IS THE FUTURE! LTE allows download rates of 100 Mbps and upload speeds of 50 Mbps for every 20 MHz of spectrum. It handles 200 connections per 5 MHz. It is said to be spectrally more efficient and can better handle IP connections, LTE networks are based on the IP (HSPA - Internet Protocols, see below). The traditional wireless vendors: Alcatel-Lucent (ALU), Nortel (NT), Motorola (MOT), Nokia-Siemens and Ericsson (ERICY) are going to be hardware suppliers, while the usual handset makers will make the devices. Vodafone (VOD), joint owner of Verizon Wireless, had LTE Trials in 2008 and was ready in 2009 being rolled out in 2011. This technology evolution, will make Verizon’s (VZ) Open Access Development initiative more desired. The LTE evolution negates the GSM vs. CDMA debate, and promises global connectivity. AT&T Mobility is going to migrate to LTE as the 4G solution. A user can switch between the two services without worrying about handsets / personal equipment....
LTE or WiMax, the other 4G network? The differences between the two: Both are 4G technologies designed to move data rather than voice. Both are IP networks based on OFDM technology, so rather than rivals such as GSM and CDMA, they’re similar but rivals! The two technologies: WiMax is based on a IEEE standard (802.16), like other popular IEEE efforts, Wi-Fi is an open standard that was debated by a large community of engineers before getting ratified. The level of openness means WiMax equipment is standard and cheaper to buy. Depending on the spectrum alloted for WiMax deployments and how the network is configured, this means a WiMax network is cheaper to build. BUT TAKE NOTE: If WiMax is the hippie, grass-roots parents on “Family Ties,” LTE is closer to Alex P. Keaton! The players determining the LTE standard through the 3GPP are comprised of carriers and equipment vendors who have been buying and selling the same proprietary boxes for years. The open, standards-based way of doing business isn’t exactly their modus operandi. A SVP that handles 4G networks for Motorola, believes LTE will be the standard chosen by 80 percent of the carriers in the world — good news for vendors such as such as Alcatel-Lucent and Ericsson, who have opted to stick with LTE. Of course, as GSM is the dominant mobile standard today, such a prediction isn’t all that surprising. However, LTE will take time to roll out, with deployments reaching mass adoption by 2011 / 2012. WiMax is out now, and more networks should be available later this year. As for speeds, LTE will be faster than the current generation of WiMax. Because of their differences in origin and current availability, the two siblings may grow closer with time, especially as newer iterations on the standard emerge. 85 percent of the work and technology for WiMax equipment will be reused in Motorola’s LTE equipment designs. The true battle isn’t between the competing 4G networks, but between wireless and wired broadband. “The performance and capabilities of WiMax and LTE will only get better over time, and will represent a direct competitive threat to the existing broadband services. People will make a choice, just like today when people are disconnecting their wired lines for Cloud-Air voice.” It’s an ambitious goal, and aside from the networking technology, things such as backhaul capacity, and availability of network devices will determine how wireless our world will become.... WHICH WILL BE MASSIVE !
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The infrastructure and the terminals of LTE / 4G will have all the standards from 2G to 4G implemented. Although legacy systems are in place to adopt existing users, the infrastructure for 4G will be only HSPA based (all-IP) using a HSPA Modem.
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LTE comes hand in hand with SAE moving the core network towards a flat, packet only all-IP based architecture (see below). In SAE, the network is composed of only two node types; the Base Station or eNodeB (evolved NodeB) and the AGW (Access Gateway). This architecture enhancement reduces the latency of the network (in the range of 10-20 msec round trip, an improvement of 150-225% when compared to the most advanced 3G networks!), required to provide real-time applications, like VoIP or on-line interactive video gaming. It lowers total cost of ownership as fewer network nodes will need to be installed and managed. The Wireless Provider can also provide cable reduction technology and integrated backhaul solutions to minimize the total cost of ownership of the network.